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Echocardiography. 2019 Jul 9. doi: 10.1111/echo.14419. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of levosimendan in heart failure: The role of echocardiography.

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Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.


Heart failure (HF) represents a deadly epidemic that nowadays affects more than 2% of the general population, representing a major public health concern that implies a high economic burden for the health system. Levosimendan in HF patients is usually used for its inotropic and vasodilator effects that act without myocardial oxygen consumption, differently from other inotropic drugs. The symptoms and hemodynamic profile improve together with the myocardial function, and this can be demonstrated by an echocardiographic examination. Currently, the available data about the effects of levosimendan assessed by echocardiography are still lacking. This review discusses the role of echocardiography in the evaluation of therapeutic effects of levosimendan in HF.


echocardiography; heart failure; levosimendan; therapeutic effects


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