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Arab J Urol. 2019 Apr 18;17(2):150-159. doi: 10.1080/2090598X.2019.1600995. eCollection 2019.

Renoprotective effect of local sildenafil administration in renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury: A randomised controlled canine study.

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Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
Medical Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, ‎Mansoura, Egypt.


Objectives: To design a new canine model to assess the renoprotective effect of local sildenafil administration, as the renoprotective effect of systemic sildenafil administration in renal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in animal models has been shown but its local effects have not been established to date. Materials and methods: In all, 120 dogs were assigned to five groups: sham, oral control (OC) group (right nephrectomy + left renal ischaemia for 60 min), oral sildenafil (OS) group (oral sildenafil 1 mg/kg, 60 min before ischaemia), local control (LC) group (local renal perfusion with saline and heparin for 5 min) and local sildenafil (LS) group (perfusion with sildenafil 0.5 mg/kg). Renal functions, histopathological changes, expression of caspase-3, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), inflammatory cytokines (intracellular adhesion molecule 1, tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in renal tissues were assessed in all groups at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: There were significant improvements in renal functions and cortical and medullary damage scores in the sildenafil-treated groups compared to their control groups (P < 0.05). Also, the LS group showed significantly better improvement of renal functions and cortical and medullary damage scores than the OS group (P < 0.05). Moreover, sildenafil significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 and inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of Nrf2 and eNOS in renal tissue, which were statistically significant in the LS group. Conclusion: LS has a greater renoprotective effect against renal IR injury than systemic administration via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pathways. Abbreviations: BUN: blood urea nitrogen; Ct: cycle threshold; eNOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; H&E: haematoxylin and eosin; IL-1β: interleukin 1β; NO: nitric oxide; Nrf2: nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; OC: oral control; OS: oral sildenafil; LC: local control; LS: local sildenafil.


Acute kidney injury; apoptosis; ischaemia reperfusion injury; oxidative stress; sildenafil

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