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Rev Mal Respir. 2019 Jul 5. pii: S0761-8425(19)30215-3. doi: 10.1016/j.rmr.2019.04.006. [Epub ahead of print]

[Exposure of vapers to formaldehyde and acrolein: A systematic review].

[Article in French]

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Hôpitaux universitaires Paris-Sud, AP-HP, 94800 Villejuif, France. Electronic address:
Hôpitaux universitaires Paris-Sud, AP-HP, 94800 Villejuif, France; Faculté de médecine, Inserm, CESP, UVSQ, université Paris-Sud, université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif, France.


Although recognized as less dangerous than conventional cigarettes, the toxicity of the electronic cigarette vapor's toxicity remains to be fully assessed. This review explores vapers' exposition to formaldehyde and acrolein.


Systematic PubMed search for reports regarding formaldehyde or acrolein or their metabolites in electronic cigarette vapor, in vapers, or in ambient air.


Fifty-two publications were selected. Found in almost all studies on vaper, formaldehyde is 8 times out of 11 - and acrolein constantly - in lower amounts than those found in conventional cigarettes. Acrolein's metabolite is found in all studies in vapers. The concentrations of formaldehyde and/or acrolein generated during vapor production may be affected by the characteristics of the E-liquid, voltage, vaping topography, and by the flavor additives.


In the current state of knowledge, we must continue to support and help smokers to quit smoking, and for those who are engaged in a harm reduction approach, to minimize the duration of their electronic cigarette use.


Acrolein; Acroléine; Cancérogénicité; Carcinogenicity; Cigarette électronique; E-liquid; E-liquide; Electronic cigarette; Formaldehyde; Formaldéhyde


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