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J Comput Chem. 2019 Oct 30;40(28):2473-2481. doi: 10.1002/jcc.26022. Epub 2019 Jul 7.

Effects of Electronic Structure of Adjacent Carbon on the Strength of C─F⋯H─F Organofluorine Hydrogen Bonds.

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School of Ocean, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209, People's Republic of China.


We investigate the effects of the electronic structure of carbon atom on the organofluorine hydrogen bonds, C─F⋯H─F. Our results show that we can modulate the strength of organofluorine hydrogen bonds by adjusting the volume of fluorine atom in C─F via changing the electronic structure of adjacent carbon atoms. Different with the conventional hydrogen bonds, we found that instead of carbon rehybridization and hyperconjugative effects, the magnitude of fluorine atomic volume plays important roles in determining the strength of the C─F⋯H─F organofluorine hydrogen bonds. The lone pair electrons at both the proximal and the vicinal carbon dramatically reinforce the strength of C─F⋯H─F organofluorine hydrogen bond with its interaction energy in the range of about 15-25 kcal/mol, that is, the carbanion-mediated organofluorine hydrogen bond could be very strong. Due to the high electronegativity of fluorine atom, it easily attracts the excess electron from the proximal and vicinal carbon, which results in the increase of its volume and negative charge. The enhanced volume of fluorine atom gives rise to the large polarization energy, and its enhanced negative charge favors the large electrostatic interaction, both of which substantially contribute to making the organofluorine hydrogen bonds strong.


carbanion-mediated organofluorine hydrogen bond; electronic effect; fluorine atomic volume; rehybridization


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