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Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 1;6(7):ofz263. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofz263. eCollection 2019 Jul.

Whole-Genome Sequencing to Differentiate Relapse From Reinfection in Community-Onset Bacteremic Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia.

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Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia.
Department of Pathology, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia.
GeneCology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Australia.
Department of Infectious Diseases, John Hunter Hospital and the University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.


Community-onset bacteremic Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia recurred in 3 of 30 (10%) patients followed prospectively, all with ongoing hazardous alcohol intake, 3-56 months after initial pneumonia. Paired isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that recurrence strains were all distinct from preceding strains, indicating reinfection in susceptible individuals rather than relapse.


Acinetobacter baumannii; community-acquired pneumonia; recurrence; relapse; whole-genome sequencing

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