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Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Jun 4;2019:9310245. doi: 10.1155/2019/9310245. eCollection 2019.

Dendrobium Officinale Polysaccharides Protect against MNNG-Induced PLGC in Rats via Activating the NRF2 and Antioxidant Enzymes HO-1 and NQO-1.

Zhao Y1,2, Sun Y3, Wang G1,2, Ge S1,2, Liu H1,2.

Author information

1
Research Center for Differentiation and Development of Basic Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, China.
2
Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of TCM Etiopathogenisis, Nanchang 330004, China.
3
School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, China.

Abstract

Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides (DOP) are the main effective ingredient in Dendrobium officinale. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) signaling is regarded as an important way to mitigate the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage and inhibit gastric cancer progress. This study introduces a previously unknown effect of DOP on precancerous lesions of gastric cancer (PLGC). The mechanism discussed herein is based on the NRF2 signal pathway as well as its downstream antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1). DOP was prepared by the alcohol deposition method, and its molecular weight was determined using High-Performance Gel-Permeation Chromatography (HPGPC). Sixty male rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group (NC), PLGC model group (PLGC), model treated with low dose (2.4 g/kg) of DOP (L-DOP), model treated with middle dose (4.8 g/kg) of DOP (M-DOP), and model treated with high dose (9.6 g/kg) of DOP (H-DOP). DOP was orally administered to rats for 15 consecutive days prior to the start of a seven-month course of 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure. Histological evaluation was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), serum creatinine (Scr), serum uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and HE staining were detected for liver and kidney function. The level of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in serum was detected by kits. The NRF2 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and western blotting was utilized to compare differential protein expression levels among cytoplasmic and nuclear cell fractions. Expression levels of antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Catalytic Subunit (GCLC), Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Modifier Subunit (GCLM), and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); furthermore, the protein expression of NRF2, HO-1, and NQO-1 was detected by western blotting. The results showed that the average content of DOP is 83%, and its molecular weight is mainly contained within 3500 and 1000000. The H-DOP experimental group exhibited noticeable weight gain after seven months, reduced intestinal metaplasia, and made the atypical hyperplasia to be kept in moderate or mild degree. Data also showed DOP to be capable of decreasing levels of ALT, UA, and BUN, all of which had been elevated following the appearance of MNNG-induced PLGCs. DOP was also seen to reduce the expression of 8-OHdG and promote the expression of NRF2 in the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, RT-PCR and western blotting results showed that DOP upregulated the gene and protein expression of HO-1 and NQO-1. These findings show that DOP prevents MNNG-induced PLGC along with subsequent liver and kidney damage. The protective effects of DOP are associated with the reduction of 8-OHdG levels as well as the activation of the NRF2 pathway and its related antioxidant enzymes, HO-1 and NQO-1.

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