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Theranostics. 2019 May 31;9(14):4030-4046. doi: 10.7150/thno.33112. eCollection 2019.

Lymphocytic subsets play distinct roles in heart diseases.

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Cardiac Regeneration and Ageing Lab, Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, School of Life Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.
Department of Cardiology, Laboratory of Experimental Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht 3508GA, The Netherlands.
UMC Utrecht Regenerative Medicine Center, University Medical Center, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3508GA, The Netherlands.


Heart diseases are one of the leading causes of death for humans in the world. Increasing evidence has shown that myocardial injury induced innate and adaptive immune responses upon early cellular damage but also during chronic phases post-injury. The immune cells can not only aggravate the injury but also play an essential role in the induction of wound healing responses, which means they play a complex role throughout the acute inflammatory response and reparative response after cardiac injury. This review will summarize the current experimental and clinical evidence of lymphocytes, one of the major types of immune cells, participate in heart diseases and try to explain the possible role of these immune cells following cardiac injury.


heart diseases; immune response; lymphocytes

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

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