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Theranostics. 2019 May 31;9(14):4019-4029. doi: 10.7150/thno.33000. eCollection 2019.

New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of sarcopenia in chronic heart failure.

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Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
Department of Geriatrics, Sir Run Run Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.


Sarcopenia is an age-related geriatric syndrome that is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass, strength and function. Chronic heart failure (CHF), the final stage of various cardiovascular diseases, may be closely correlated with the occurrence of sarcopenia. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CHF can promote the development of sarcopenia through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, including malnutrition, inflammation, hormonal changes, oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. Additionally, CHF can aggravate the adverse outcomes associated with sarcopenia, including falls, osteoporosis, frailty, cachexia, hospitalization, and mortality. Sarcopenia and CHF are mutually interacting clinical syndromes. Patients with these two syndromes seem to endure a double burden, with no particularly effective way to hinder their progression. However, the combination of physical exercise, nutritional supplements, and drug therapy may counteract the development of these maladies. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress in the pathogenesis and treatment of sarcopenia in patients with CHF.


chronic heart failure; pathogenesis; sarcopenia; treatment

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Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

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