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Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019 Sep;104:102-115. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.06.029. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Common and distinct neural correlates of fear extinction and cognitive reappraisal: A meta-analysis of fMRI studies.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Bellvitge University Hospital, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; ICVS/3B's - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Bellvitge University Hospital, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
3
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas at Austin, United States.
4
Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Mental Health Research Networking Center (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain.
5
Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Mental Health Research Networking Center (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain.
6
Laboratory of Biological Psychology, Research unit Brain & Cognition, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
7
Adult Mental Health Unit, Parc Taulí University Hospital, Sabadell, Spain; Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
8
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
9
Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Melbourne, Australia.
10
Department of Psychiatry, Bellvitge University Hospital, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Mental Health Research Networking Center (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain; Department of Psychobiology and Methodology of Health Sciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: csoriano@idibell.cat.
11
Mental Health Research Networking Center (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: mafullana@clinic.cat.

Abstract

Cognitive reappraisal and fear extinction learning represent two different approaches to emotion regulation. While their respective neural correlates have been widely studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few direct comparisons between these processes have been conducted. We conducted a meta-analysis of fMRI studies of reappraisal and fear extinction, with the aim of examining both commonalities and differences in their neural correlates. We also conducted independent analyses that focused on specific reappraisal strategies (reinterpretation, distancing). Overall, we observed that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the bilateral anterior insular cortex (AIC) were similarly consistently engaged by reappraisal and extinction. Extinction was more consistently linked to activation of sensory and emotion processing regions, whereas reappraisal was more consistently associated with activation of a dorsal fronto-parietal network. Interestingly, the amygdala was preferentially deactivated by distancing. These results suggest that the dACC and the AIC are involved in domain-general regulatory networks. Differences between extinction and reappraisal could be explained by their relative processing demands on visual perceptual versus higher cognitive neural systems.

KEYWORDS:

Cognitive reappraisal; Distancing; Emotion regulation; Fear extinction; Meta-analysis; Reinterpretation; fMRI

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