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Parasitol Res. 2019 Sep;118(9):2583-2590. doi: 10.1007/s00436-019-06391-x. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Evidence for camels (Camelus bactrianus) as the main intermediate host of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato G6/G7 in Mongolia.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, National Center for Zoonotic Disease, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
2
Epidemiology and Public Health Department, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
3
University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
4
Anses LRFSN, Wildlife Surveillance and Eco-epidemiology Unit, National Reference Laboratory for Echinococcus spp., Technopôle agricole et vétérinaire, 54220, Malzéville, France.
5
School of Veterinary Medicine, Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
6
Department of Parasitology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan.
7
Anses LRFSN, Wildlife Surveillance and Eco-epidemiology Unit, National Reference Laboratory for Echinococcus spp., Technopôle agricole et vétérinaire, 54220, Malzéville, France. Gerald.UMHANG@anses.fr.

Abstract

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), the parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), is a global public health problem. In Mongolia, despite wide distribution of human CE, not enough information is available on the prevalence and molecular characterization of CE in livestock and its zoonotic linkage with human cases. We investigated the distribution of human CE cases and livestock population using statistical models to get insight into the zoonotic linkage. The incidence of human CE cases increased by a factor of 1.71 for one interquartile range increment in the density of the camel population. No significant association was observed with other livestock species. The samples collected from 96 camels and 15 goats in an endemic region showed a CE prevalence of 19.7% and 6.7%, respectively. All livestock CE were E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 species of the E. granulosus s.l. complex. The genetic diversity was investigated using the haplotype network based on full cox1 gene analysis of the samples collected from livestock CE and nucleotide sequences previously reported from human CE and wild canids infection in Mongolia. Four haplotypes were identified within the livestock samples, two of which had not been previously reported. A common haplotype was identified among humans, camels, goats, and a wolf, all of which were within the same geographical area. A mixed infection of E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 with different haplotypes in the intermediate host was identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive description of the current epidemiological situation of CE in Mongolia with substantial evidence that camels might be the main intermediate host of E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 in Mongolia. Moreover, our result presents the first report in the country to provide insight into the prevalence of E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 in livestock.

KEYWORDS:

Camel; Cystic echinococcosis; Echinococcus granulosus s.l. G6/G7; Goat; Mongolia

PMID:
31278516
DOI:
10.1007/s00436-019-06391-x

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