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Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2019 Sep 9;58(37):13024-13029. doi: 10.1002/anie.201906326. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Genomics-Driven Discovery of NO-Donating Diazeniumdiolate Siderophores in Diverse Plant-Associated Bacteria.

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Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Chemistry and Infection Biology (HKI), Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745, Jena, Germany.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the Doherty Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.
Natural Product Chemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743, Jena, Germany.


Siderophores are key players in bacteria-host interactions, with the main function to provide soluble iron for their producers. Gramibactin from rhizosphere bacteria expands siderophore function and diversity as it delivers iron to the host plant and features an unusual diazeniumdiolate moiety for iron chelation. By mutational analysis of the grb gene cluster, we identified genes (grbD and grbE) necessary for diazeniumdiolate formation. Genome mining using a GrbD-based network revealed a broad range of orthologous gene clusters in mainly plant-associated Burkholderia/Paraburkholderia species. Two new types of diazeniumdiolate siderophores, megapolibactins and plantaribactin were fully characterized. In vitro assays and in vivo monitoring experiments revealed that the iron chelators also liberate nitric oxide (NO) in plant roots. This finding is important since NO donors are considered as biofertilizers that maintain iron homeostasis and increase overall plant fitness.


Burkholderia; diazeniumdiolate; nitric oxide; non-ribosomal peptide; siderophores


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