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BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2019 Jun 4;4(1):e000248. doi: 10.1136/bmjophth-2018-000248. eCollection 2019.

Metagenomics in ophthalmology: current findings and future prospectives.

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St Paul's Eye Unit, Department of Corneal and External Eye Diseases, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Department of Doctoral Studies, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia.
Department of Eye and Vision Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Fondazione Banca Degli Occhi Del Veneto Onlus, Zelarino, Venezia, Italy.
Dipartimento di Specialità Medico-Chirurgiche, Scienze Radiologiche e Sanita Pubblica, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
Centre for Integrative Biology (CIBIO), Trento University, Trento, Italy.


Less than 1% of all microorganisms of the available environmental microbiota can be cultured with the currently available techniques. Metagenomics is a new methodology of high-throughput DNA sequencing, able to provide taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities without the necessity to culture microbes in the laboratory. Metagenomics opens to a 'hypothesis-free' approach, giving important details for future research and treatment of ocular diseases in ophthalmology, such as ocular infection and ocular surface diseases.


cornea; eye; metagenomics; microbiome; ocular surface; ophthalmology; sequencing

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