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Fish Physiol Biochem. 2019 Jul 4. doi: 10.1007/s10695-019-00677-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Coping with exposure to hypoxia: modifications in stress parameters in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

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Laboratory of Aquatic Organisms Nutrition, Postgraduate Program in Aquaculture, University Nilton Lins, Manaus, AM, 69058-030, Brazil.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, 30100, Murcia, Spain.
Department of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Campus Salvador, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA, 40170-110, Brazil.
Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, 30100, Murcia, Spain.
Laboratory of Fish Nutrition and Feeding Behavior, Faculty of Fishing Engineering, Center of Agricultural Science, Environmental and Biological, University of Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA, 44380-000, Brazil.


This study aimed to investigate the stress response of Sparus aurata specimens fed with nutraceutical aquafeed brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and spirulina (Arthrospira platensis). For that purpose, 96 (169.0 ± 2.8 g) animals were distributed randomly in 12 tanks (8 fish per tank, 4 replicates) and divided in 3 groups (D1, casein/gelatin, control; D2, brewer's yeast; D3, spirulina) and fed for 30 days. At the end of this period, fish from two replicates of each experimental diet were submitted to air exposure for 60 s while the fish from the other two replicates were maintained undisturbed (control). Afterwards, samples of blood, skin mucus, and head kidney were collected. The results revealed that after air exposure, cortisol, and glucose levels increased in the groups fed D1 (18.5 ± 2.6 mg/mL; 7.3 ± 0.6 mmol/L, respectively) and D2 (20.0 ± 6.2 mg/mL; 7.7 ± 0.6 mmol/L), but glucose not increased in fish fed D3 (13.7 ± 2.6 mg/mL; 5.5 ± 0.3 mmol/L). Lactate levels increased in all stressed groups, but in D1, its levels were significantly higher. After stress procedure, immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels in mucus increased only in fish fed D3 (0.1901 ± 0.0126 U/mL). Furthermore, there was a reduction in the expression of some genes involved in stress response (coxIV, prdx3, csfl-r, ucp1, and sod in fish fed D2 and D3). csf1 decreased only in stressed fish fed D2. However, cat increased in fish fed with D3. In summary, these findings points to the beneficial effects of spirulina and brewer's yeast to improve stress resistance in aquaculture practices of gilthead seabream.


Antioxidant status; Functional protein; Nutraceutical aquafeed; Oxidative damage


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