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Cells. 2019 Jul 2;8(7). pii: E667. doi: 10.3390/cells8070667.

Analysis of Allergen-Specific T Cell and IgE Reactivity to Different Preparations of Cow's Milk-Containing Food Extracts.

Author information

1
Division of Pediatric Allergy & Immunology, Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, University of California, San Diego, CA 92123, USA.
2
Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
3
La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
4
La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. veroniqueschulten44@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

cow's milk allergy (CM) is among the most common food allergies in young children and is often outgrown by adulthood. Prior to developing a tolerance to CM, a majority of CM-allergic children may tolerate extensively-heated CM. This study aims to characterize the IgE- and T cell-reactivity to unheated CM and the progressively more heated CM-containing foods.

METHODS:

CM-containing food extracts from muffin, baked cheese, custard and raw, pasteurized CM commercial extract were tested for skin prick test reactivity, IgE binding and T cell reactivity as assessed by IL-5 and IFNγ production.

RESULTS:

the skin prick test (SPT) reactivity was significantly decreased to muffin extract compared to raw, pasteurized CM. Both IgE- and T-cell reactivity were readily detectable against food extracts from all forms of CM. Western blot analysis of IgE reactivity revealed variability between extracts that was protein-specific. T cell-reactivity was detected against all four extracts with no significant difference in IL-5 or IFNγ production between them.

CONCLUSION:

our data indicate that despite reduced clinical reactivity, extracts from heated CM-containing foods retain immunogenicity when tested in vitro, particularly at the T cell level.

KEYWORDS:

IgE; T cells; allergen extract; baked milk; cow’s milk allergy; extensively-heated milk

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