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PLoS One. 2019 Jul 3;14(7):e0219181. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219181. eCollection 2019.

Periodontal bacterial supernatants modify differentiation, migration and inflammatory cytokine expression in human periodontal ligament stem cells.

Author information

1
Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
2
Laboratory of Applied Periodontal and Peri-implantitis Sciences, Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
3
Functional Genomics Center Zurich, ETH, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract

Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) play an important role in periodontal tissue homeostasis/turnover and could be applied in cell-based periodontal regenerative therapy. Bacterial supernatants secreted from diverse periodontal bacteria induce the production of cytokines that contribute to local periodontal tissue destruction. However, little is known about the impact of whole bacterial toxins on the biological behavior of PDLSC. Therefore this study investigated whether proliferation, migration, inflammatory cytokines expression and transcriptional profile would be affected by exposure to endotoxins from bacterial species found in the subgingival plaque. PDLSC were cultured with the following bacterial supernatants: S. mutans, S. anginosus, P. intermedia, F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis and T. denticola. These supernatants were prepared in dilutions of 1:1000, 1:500, 1:300 and 1:50. Using quantitative RT-PCR, gene expression of selected inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β) and cell-surface receptors (TLR2, TLR4) showed upregulation of ≈2.0- to 3.0-fold, when exposed to P. intermedia, F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis and T. denticola. However, supernatants did not affect proliferation (MTT) and migration (wound scratch assays) of PDLSC. Next generation RNA sequencing confirmed modified lineage commitment of PDLSC by stimulating chondrogenesis, adipogenesis and inhibition of osteogenesis under P. gingivalis supernatant treatment compared to control. Taken together, this study shows stem cell immunomodulatory response to different periodontal bacteria supernatant and suggests that stem cell transcriptional capacity, migration/proliferation and osteogenesis may differ in the presence of those pathogens. These results bring into question stem cell contribution to periodontal tissue regeneration and onset of inflammation.

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