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J Urol. 2019 Jul 3:101097JU0000000000000424. doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000000424. [Epub ahead of print]

Predictors of Psychosocial Distress in Parents of Young Children with Disorders of Sex Development.

Author information

1
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma.
2
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
3
Texas Children's Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
4
University of California San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, California.
5
Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
6
Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
7
John R. Oishei Children's Hospital, Buffalo, New York.
8
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
9
Cook Children's Medical Center, Ft. Worth, Texas.
10
Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan.
11
Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.
12
St. Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri.
13
New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We evaluated demographic, financial and support predictors of distress for parents of young children with disorders of sex development including atypical genital development, and characterized early parental experiences. This work extends our previous findings to identify those parents at risk for distress.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Participants included mothers (76) and fathers (63) of a child (78) diagnosed with disorders of sex development characterized by moderate to severe genital atypia. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire, measures of anxious and depressive symptoms, quality of life, illness uncertainty and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and rated their satisfaction with the appearance of their child's genitalia.

RESULTS:

Depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms of caregivers were comparable to standardized norms while levels of anxious symptoms were below norms. A subset of parents reported clinically elevated symptoms. Overall 26% of parents reported anxious symptoms, 24% reported depressive symptoms and 17% reported posttraumatic stress symptoms. Levels of illness uncertainty were lower than those of parents of children with other chronic illnesses. Differences by parent sex emerged, with mothers reporting greater distress. Lower income, increased medical care and travel expenses, and having no other children were related to increased psychosocial distress.

CONCLUSIONS:

Early psychosocial screening is recommended for parents of children with disorders of sex development. Clinicians should be aware that financial burden and lack of previous parenting experience are risk factors for distress.

KEYWORDS:

disorders of sex development; parents; psychological; stress

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