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Matern Child Nutr. 2019 Jul 2:e12869. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12869. [Epub ahead of print]

Breastfeeding duration in infancy and adult risks of type 2 diabetes in a high-income country.

Author information

1
Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Human Genomics and Metagenomics in Metabolism, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
3
Department of Public Health and Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Department of Public Health, Section of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

Observed associations between breastfeeding and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood may be confounded. We examined if the duration of breastfeeding in infancy was associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood after adjustment for a range of prenatal and postnatal risk factors. We prospectively followed 6,044 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort born 1959-1961. Duration of any breastfeeding (≤0.5, >0.5-1, >1-2, >2-4, >4 months) was assessed at the infant's 1-year health examination. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes (at age ≥30 years, 237 persons) by breastfeeding duration without and with adjustment for parental social status and education, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), maternal diabetes and smoking during pregnancy, gestational weight gain, parity, preterm birth, birth weight, sex, and BMI at ages 7 and 41-43 years. In the unadjusted analysis, compared with infants breastfed for ≤0.5 month, those breastfed for >4 months had a 51% reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (HR = 0.49; 95% CI [0.32, 0.75]). After the stepwise adjustment for putative early life confounders, this was attenuated to a nonsignificant 31% reduced risk (HR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.44, 1.07]). Adjustment for childhood and adulthood BMI minimally changed the results. We found that the inverse association between the duration of breastfeeding and risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood is considerably weakened and no longer significant after adjustment for prenatal and postnatal factors in the infant and mother.

KEYWORDS:

breastfeeding; breastfeeding and diabetes; breastfeeding duration; cohort study; confounding variables; epidemiology; type 2 diabetes

PMID:
31267694
DOI:
10.1111/mcn.12869

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