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Br J Pharmacol. 2019 Jul 2. doi: 10.1111/bph.14780. [Epub ahead of print]

Distinct Functions of Endogenous Cannabinoid System in Alcohol Abuse Disorders.

Author information

1
Division of Analytical Psychopharmacology, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, 10962, USA.
2
New York State Psychiatric Institute, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
4
Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Abstract

Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), the principal active component in Cannabis sativa extracts such as marijuana, participates in cell signaling by binding to cell surface receptors. CB1 receptors (CB1 s) are present in both inhibitory and excitatory presynaptic terminals. CB2 receptors (CB2 s) found in neuronal subpopulations in addition to microglial cells and astrocytes and are present in both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. Subsequent to endocannabinoid (eCB) system discoveries, studies have suggested that alcohol alters the eCB system and that the eCB system plays a major role in the motivation to abuse alcohol. Preclinical studies have provided evidence that chronic alcohol consumption modulates eCBs and CB1 expression in brain addiction circuits. In addition, studies have further established the distinct function of the eCB system in the development of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. This review provides a recent and comprehensive assessment of the literature related to the function of the eCB system in alcohol abuse disorders.

KEYWORDS:

Addiction; Cannabinoid receptors; FASD; Learning and memory; Marijuana; Motivation

PMID:
31265740
DOI:
10.1111/bph.14780

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