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J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Jul 17;67(28):8061-8069. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b01889. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Milk-Derived Amadori Products in Feces of Formula-Fed Infants.

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Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry , Helmholtz Zentrum München , 85764 Neuherberg , Germany.
ZIEL Institute for Food and Health , Technical University of Munich , 85354 Freising , Germany.
Chair of Analytical Food Chemistry , Technical University of Munich , 85354 Freising , Germany.
Chair of Nutrition and Immunology , Technical University of Munich , 85354 Freising , Germany.


Food processing of infant formula alters chemical structures, including the formation of Maillard reaction products between proteins and sugars. We detected early Maillard reaction products, so-called Amadori products, in stool samples of formula-fed infants. In total, four Amadori products (N-deoxylactulosyllysine, N-deoxyfructosyllysine, N-deoxylactulosylleucylisoleucine, N-deoxyfructosylleucylisoleucine) were identified by a combination of complementary nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approaches. Chemical structures were confirmed by preparation and isolation of reference compounds, LC-MS/MS, and NMR. The leucylisoleucine Amadori compounds, which most likely originate from β-lactoglobulin, were excreted throughout the first year of life in feces of formula-fed infants but were absent in feces of breastfed infants. Despite high inter- and intraindividual differences of Amadori products in the infants' stool, solid food introduction resulted in a continuous decrease, proving infant formula as the major source of the excreted Amadori products.


Amadori products; Maillard reaction; fructosyllysine; infant formula; metabolomics; milk marker

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