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J Acad Nutr Diet. 2019 Nov;119(11):1842-1851.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2019.04.015. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Frequency of Consumption of Whole Fruit, Not Fruit Juice, Is Associated with Reduced Prevalence of Obesity in Korean Adults.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Fruit consumption is known to be beneficial to health. However, the health benefits of fruit juice are controversial due to its high sugar content.

OBJECTIVES:

To examine the associations of frequency of consumption of whole fruit and fruit juice with obesity and metabolic syndrome.

DESIGN:

This cross-sectional study used data from the 2012-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 10,460 adults (4,082 men and 6,378 women) aged 19 to 64 years were included in the study.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Frequency of consumption of whole fruit and fruit juice was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire, and dietary sugar intake was calculated using a 24-hour recall. Obesity and abdominal obesity were determined using body mass index and waist circumference, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was defined on the basis of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED:

Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between frequency of whole fruit or fruit juice consumption and obesity and metabolic syndrome abnormalities.

RESULTS:

The percentage of participants who consumed whole fruit daily was 32.6%, whereas 52.3% consumed fruit juice rarely. The average intake of total sugars was 14.9% of total energy, which was within the recommend range (<20% of total energy) for Koreans. Consuming whole fruit ≥1 time/day was associated with reduced prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, and elevated blood pressure compared with consuming whole fruit ≤1 time/wk. However, frequency of fruit juice consumption showed no association with obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS:

Frequency of whole fruit consumption was associated with reduced prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome abnormalities among Korean adults with average total sugar intake within the recommended range.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary sugars; Fruit; Fruit juice; Metabolic syndrome; Obesity

PMID:
31262696
DOI:
10.1016/j.jand.2019.04.015

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