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J Perianesth Nurs. 2019 Dec;34(6):1146-1155. doi: 10.1016/j.jopan.2019.04.009. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Incidence, Timing, and Factors Associated with Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in the Ambulatory Surgery Setting.



To examine incidence, timing, and factors associated with postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients recovering in the ambulatory postanesthesia care unit (PACU).


Descriptive correlational, cross-sectional.


Data were collected prospectively, including patient, surgery, anesthesia, and postoperative factors associated with PONV. Independent predictors of nausea were determined using logistic regression.


In 139 randomly selected patients, 10.8% had nausea and 2.9% vomited. On arrival to the PACU, 3 patients had nausea, which increased incrementally to 10 during the next 90 minutes, declining to 3 by 150 minutes. These patients had significantly more hydration and longer PACU stays. Fifty-three percent had nausea at discharge. Younger age and gastroesophageal reflux disease were significantly and independently associated with nausea.


PONV is relatively infrequent, but remains a distressing problem resulting in negative surgical experiences and increased cost. Future research is warranted to examine gastroesophageal reflux disease as a novel risk factor.


ambulatory surgery; postanesthesia care unit; postoperative nausea; postoperative vomiting

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