Send to

Choose Destination
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jun;98(26):e16030. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000016030.

A retrospective study of mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in high school basketball, handball, judo, soccer, and volleyball.

Author information

Japan Institute of Sports Sciences.
Japan Woman's College of Physical Education, Tokyo.
Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan.


The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among male and female high school students across several different sports to understand ACL injury trends.A total of 1000 cases involving high school students who suffered ACL injuries during school activities (soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, and judo) and who received insurance benefits through the Injury and Accident Mutual Aid Benefit System, were included to clarify the various mechanisms of ACL injuries. The mechanism of ACL injury was divided into contact and non-contact injuries. Contact injuries were further divided into direct and indirect contact injuries. Non-contact ACL injuries were also further divided into landing injuries, which involved jump-landing movements, and cutting and stopping injuries, which involved movement with a change of direction and deceleration.Overall, 99.0% of judo ACL injuries were categorized as contact ACL injuries. With regards to ball sports, the number of non-contact ACL injuries among basketball, volleyball, and handball players was significantly higher than the number of contact injuries (67.0%, 86.5%, and 68.5% respectively). With regards to female soccer and basketball players, the number of indirect ACL injuries was higher than direct injuries (72.2% and 76.7%, respectively).Volleyball was associated with a higher rate of non-contact injuries. Soccer, basketball, and handball were associated with more or similar rates of indirect and non-contact injuries than direct injuries. Judo was associated with a higher rate of contact injuries.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center