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Expert Rev Neurother. 2019 Oct;19(10):1037-1050. doi: 10.1080/14737175.2019.1638763. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Microbiota-gut brain axis involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Author information

1
Science of Health Department, School of Medicine, University of Catanzaro , Catanzaro , Italy.
2
Paediatric Neurology and Muscular Diseases Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genoa, "G. Gaslini" Institute , Genova , Italy.
3
Micalis Institute, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, JouyenJosas&MetaGenoPolis, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay , Jouyen Josas , France.
4
Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork , Cork , Ireland.
5
Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri , Milan , Italy.
6
Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, S. Anna Hospital , Como , Italy.
7
Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli' , Napoli , Italy.
8
Biological Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Istituto Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli , Brescia , Italy.
9
Stress, Psychiatry and Immunology Laboratory, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry , King's College , London.
10
Human Nutrition and Eating Disorder Research Center, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine University of Pavia , Pavia , Italy.
11
Department forBiomedical Research, University of Bern , Bern , Switzerland.
12
Ordine dei Tecnologi Alimentari Campania e Lazio , Napoli , Italy.
13
IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation , Calambrone, Pisa , Italy.
14
National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology , Pisa , Italy.
15
Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Physiology, University of Genova , Genova , Italy.
16
Department of Pediatrics`, "Sapienza" University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
17
Department of Refractory Epilepsy, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital , Oslo , Norway.
18
Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry - Core Facilities, Istituto Giannina Gaslini , Genova , Italy.
19
Department of Research and Development, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Osla, Norway and Department of Refractory Epilepsy, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital , Osla , Norway.
20
Department of Pediatrics, University of L'Aquila , L'Aquila , Italy.
21
Centre for Integrative Biology, University of Trento , Trento , Italy.
22
Kolfarma SRL , Genova , Italy.
23
Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "Giulio Natta", Politecnico di Milano , Milano , Italy.
24
Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology , Queen Square, London , UK.
25
Laboratory of Neurogenetics, Istituto Giannina Gaslini , Genova , Italy.

Abstract

Introduction: The microbiota-gut brain (MGB) axis is the bidirectional communication between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. An increasing body of preclinical and clinical evidence has revealed that the gut microbial ecosystem can affect neuropsychiatric health. However, there is still a need of further studies to elucidate the complex gene-environment interactions and the role of the MGB axis in neuropsychiatric diseases, with the aim of identifying biomarkers and new therapeutic targets, to allow early diagnosis and improving treatments. Areas covered: To review the role of MGB axis in neuropsychiatric disorders, prediction and prevention of disease through exploitation, integration, and combination of data from existing gut microbiome/microbiota projects and appropriate other International '-Omics' studies. The authors also evaluated the new technological advances to investigate and modulate, through nutritional and other interventions, the gut microbiota. Expert opinion: The clinical studies have documented an association between alterations in gut microbiota composition and/or function, whereas the preclinical studies support a role for the gut microbiota in impacting behaviors which are of relevance to psychiatry and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Targeting MGB axis could be an additional approach for treating CNS disorders and all conditions in which alterations of the gut microbiota are involved.

KEYWORDS:

Ketogenic diet; inflammation; manipulating microbiota; metabolomics; microbiota-gut brain axis; neuropsychiatric disorders

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