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J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019 Jul;87(1):18-26. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000002266.

Preperitoneal balloon tamponade and resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta: Alternatives to open packing for pelvic fracture-associated hemorrhage.

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From the Departments of Surgery and Clinical Investigations (W.S.D., D.M.R., R.R.S., J.B.W., M.R.B., K.K.S., G.E.B., S.R.H., M.J.E., M.J.M.), Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington; and Trauma and Emergency Surgery Service (M.J.M.), Legacy Emanuel Medical Center, Portland, Oregon.



The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of preperitoneal balloon tamponade (PPB), resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the orta (REBOA), and open preperitoneal packing (OP) in a realistic animal model of pelvic fracture-associated hemorrhage.


Thirty-nine swine underwent creation of open-book pelvic fracture and iliac vascular injury. Animals were randomized to no intervention (n = 7), OP (n = 10), PPB (n = 9), zone 1 REBOA (n = 7), and zone 3 REBOA (n = 6) at a mean arterial pressure less than 40 mm Hg from uncontrolled hemorrhage. Primary outcome was survival at 1 hour. Secondary outcomes included survival in the immediate 10 m following intervention reversal, peak preperitoneal pressure (PP), blood loss, bleed rate, and peak lactate.


Prior to injury, no difference was measured between groups for weight, hemodynamics, lactate, and hematocrit (all p = NS). The injury was uniformly lethal without intervention, with survival time (mean) of 5 m, peak PP of 14 mm Hg, blood loss of 960 g, bleed rate of 450 g/m, and peak lactate of 2.6 mmol/L. Survival time (m) was extended to 44 with OP, 60 with PPB, and 60 with REBOA (p < 0.01). Peak PP (mm Hg) was 19 with OP, 23 with PPB, 10 with zone 1 REBOA, and 6 with zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.05). Blood loss (g) was 850 with OP, 930 with PPB, 610 with zone 1 REBOA, and 370 with zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.01). Peak lactate (mmol/L) was 3.3 with OP, 4.3 with PPB, 13.4 with zone 1 REBOA, and 5.3 with zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.01). Only 33% of zone 1 REBOA animals survived the initial 10 m after balloon deflation, compared to 60% for OP, 67% for PPB, and 100% for zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.01).


Preperitoneal balloon tamponade and zone 3 REBOA are effective alternatives to OP in this animal model of lethal pelvic fracture-associated hemorrhage. Zone 1 REBOA extends survival time but with high mortality upon reversal.

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