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Glob Ment Health (Camb). 2019 Jun 13;6:e11. doi: 10.1017/gmh.2019.9. eCollection 2019.

Methodological approaches to situational analysis in global mental health: a scoping review.

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Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Department of Psychiatry and Health Management & Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
Department of Family Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada.
Shanghai CDC for Mental Health, Division of Training and Health Education, Shanghai, China.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China.
Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Hongkou District Mental Health Center, Shanghai, China.
Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine.


Global inequity in access to and availability of essential mental health services is well recognized. The mental health treatment gap is approximately 50% in all countries, with up to 90% of people in the lowest-income countries lacking access to required mental health services. Increased investment in global mental health (GMH) has increased innovation in mental health service delivery in LMICs. Situational analyses in areas where mental health services and systems are poorly developed and resourced are essential when planning for research and implementation, however, little guidance is available to inform methodological approaches to conducting these types of studies. This scoping review provides an analysis of methodological approaches to situational analysis in GMH, including an assessment of the extent to which situational analyses include equity in study designs. It is intended as a resource that identifies current gaps and areas for future development in GMH. Formative research, including situational analysis, is an essential first step in conducting robust implementation research, an essential area of study in GMH that will help to promote improved availability of, access to and reach of mental health services for people living with mental illness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While strong leadership in this field exists, there remain significant opportunities for enhanced research representing different LMICs and regions.


Equity; formative research; global mental health; methods; situational analysis

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