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Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Jun 14;10:326. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00326. eCollection 2019.

Exercise Management for Young People With Type 1 Diabetes: A Structured Approach to the Exercise Consultation.

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Children's Diabetes Centre, Perth Children's Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia.
UWA Centre for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
School of Human Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
Telethon Kids Institute, Perth Children's Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia.
Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital of Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.


Regular physical activity during childhood is important for optimal physical and psychological development. For individuals with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), physical activity offers many health benefits including improved glycemic control, cardiovascular function, blood lipid profiles, and psychological well-being. Despite these benefits, many young people with T1D do not meet physical activity recommendations. Barriers to engaging in a physically active lifestyle include fear of hypoglycemia, as well as insufficient knowledge in managing diabetes around exercise in both individuals and health care professionals. Diabetes and exercise management is complex, and many factors can influence an individual's glycemic response to exercise including exercise related factors (such as type, intensity and duration of the activity) and person specific factors (amount of insulin on board, person's stress/anxiety and fitness levels). International guidelines provide recommendations for clinical practice, however a gap remains in how to apply these guidelines to a pediatric exercise consultation. Consequently, it can be challenging for health care practitioners to advise young people with T1D how to approach exercise management in a busy clinic setting. This review provides a structured approach to the child/adolescent exercise consultation, based on a framework of questions, to assist the health care professional in formulating person-specific exercise management plans for young people with T1D.


Type 1 diabetes; adolescent; blood glucose; child; consultation; exercise; hypoglycemia; physical activity

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