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Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2019 Jul-Sep;31(3):135-143. doi: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_92_19.

Therapeutic potential of intravesical injections of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of lower urinary tract disorders due to regenerative deficiency.

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Department of Urology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.
Department of Anatomy, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.
Department of Pathology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.


The bladder urothelium plays an important role of barrier function to prevent influx of urinary toxic substance and bacteria. When there is insult to the urinary bladder, the urothelium will start to regenerate on injury. However, several factors might affect the regenerative function of bladder urothelium, including aging, chronic inflammation, and system diseases such as diabetes and chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Impairment of bladder mucosal regenerative function might result in defective urothelial cell differentiation as well as barrier function, which might be the underlying pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and recurrent bacterial cystitis. Our previous immunohistochemistry (IHC) study and electron microscopic study revealed that the loss of normal umbrella cells and defective junction proteins in IC/BPS and recurrent cystitis. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been previously used in many medical aspects as regenerative medicine therapy. PRP is rich in many growth factors and cytokines which modulate the process of inflammation and regeneration in the wound healing process. Recent pilot studies have shown that intravesical PRP injections improve IC symptoms and yield a success rate of 70% at 3 months after treatment. The results highly suggest that PRP injection could improve urothelial regenerative function and reduce chronic inflammation in IC patients. This article reviews recently published researches on the urothelial dysfunction biomarkers, urothelial cell differentiation, and urinary regenerative and inflammatory proteins in patients with IC/BPS or recurrent bacterial cystitis. The pathophysiology of the insufficient urothelial regeneration and differentiation; and chronic inflammation may induce urothelial dysfunction and further affect the regenerative ability of the diseased bladder urothelium in IC/BPS and recurrent bacterial cystitis are discussed.


Bladder urothelium; Interstitial cystitis; Platelet-rich plasma

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