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Complement Med Res. 2019 Jun 28:1-6. doi: 10.1159/000500852. [Epub ahead of print]

Improving the New Definition of Fascial System.

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Department of Cardiology, Santa Maria Nascente Institute IRCCS - Hospitalization and Care with Scientific Foundation Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy,


in English, German


Bone tissue is defined as connective tissue with an embryological derivation that reflects the origin of the fascial system. The surface of the bone tissue makes the bone system the largest organ in the human body, whose most representative cells are the osteocytes. It is essential for the general health of the individual, influencing different organs and systems, through the hormonal paracrine production of the osteocytes. In the modern scientific panorama, bone tissue has been included in the definition of fascial continuum only in one of our articles. The intent of this article is to enrich the motivations that led to the introduction of the bone in the fascia description, illustrating its local and systemic properties. The final theme of the current text will be to give a definition of the fascial system more congruent with modern scientific notions.


The article collects the embryological and anatomical information on bone and exposes the most recent information in a narrative review.


The results of the literature show that bone is specialized connective tissue.


Bone tissue must be included in the definitions of what is considered fascial tissue, so as to have a better view of the fascial system.


Chiropractic; Fascia; Fascial system; Manual therapy; Osteopathy


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