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Transplant Proc. 2019 Jul - Aug;51(6):1816-1821. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2019.04.050. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Gout Severity in Recipients of Kidney Transplant.

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Trinity Partners LLC, Waltham, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
Trinity Partners LLC, Waltham, Massachusetts.
Horizon Pharma USA Inc, Medical Affairs, Lake Forest, Illinois.
Division of Rheumatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.



This retrospective analysis of medical chart data was performed to compare severity and treatment of gout in patients with or without a history of kidney transplantation (KT).


Via an online survey, a panel of board-certified US nephrologists (N = 104) provided the following deidentified chart data for their 3 most recent patients with gout: age, sex, serum uric acid, numbers of swollen or tender joints, visible tophi, gout flare events (prior 12 months), gout drug treatment history, and KT history. The presence of "severe, uncontrolled gout" was defined as: serum uric acid ≥ 7.0 mg/dL, ≥1 tophi and ≥2 flares in the last 12 months, and history of xanthine oxidase inhibitor treatment.


Twenty-five out of 312 (8.0%) gout patients had a history of KT. Univariate analysis found that patients with gout and history of kidney transplants had: greater prevalence of severe uncontrolled gout (27% vs 8%, P = .007) and tophi (36% vs 17%, P = .030), and higher rates of failure or physician perceived contraindication to allopurinol (44% vs 23%, P = .028).


This study provides preliminary evidence that gout in patients with history of KT is more severe and poses greater challenges to pharmacologic management. Although gout has been linked to worse outcomes among kidney recipients in the literature, there are presently no publications on gout severity among patients with KT in comparison to other patients with gout. Further investigation of disease severity and appropriate, effective treatment options in recipients of kidney transplant with a diagnosis of gout, especially prior to the transplant, is warranted.

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