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Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jun 26;372:112025. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2019.112025. [Epub ahead of print]

Early life stress induces submissive behavior in adult rats.

Author information

1
Division of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheba, 84101, Israel. Electronic address: frdima16@gmail.com.
2
Division of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheba, 84101, Israel. Electronic address: AleksZl@clalit.org.il.
3
Psychology Department, Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer-Sheva, 84105 Israel. Electronic address: kofman@bgu.ac.il.
4
Division of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheba, 84101, Israel. Electronic address: juliag7648@gmail.com.
5
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Ecology and Medicine, Dnepropetrovsk State University, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. Electronic address: eseverinovskaya@gmail.com.
6
Division of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheba, 84101, Israel. Electronic address: bem1975@gmail.com.
7
Division of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheba, 84101, Israel. Electronic address: ruslanKo@clalit.org.il.
8
Division of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheba, 84101, Israel. Electronic address: dmitry.natanel@gmail.com.
9
Department of Neurosurgery, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheba, 84101, Israel. Electronic address: IsraelMe@clalit.org.il.
10
Division of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheba, 84101, Israel. Electronic address: matthewboykoresearch@gmail.com.

Abstract

Maternal-deprivation of rodent pups is a relevant model of extreme early-life stress that can be relevant to the understanding of long-term effects of war, migration, parental loss and displacement. Although even mild stress during infancy affects brain development and behavior, the current study focused on the effects of six hour daily maternal-separation, a model that reflects the severe distress often experienced in those circumstances. This study emphasizes the effect of maternal separation on social behavior in the context of a variety of factors that measure cognitive and emotional behavior which were subject to principle component analysis. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam for 6 h each day during the first 3-weeks of life and underwent a battery of behavioral tests at 3-months of age. We found that rodents exposed to postnatal maternal deprivation displayed submissive behavior in resident-intruder and dominant-submissive tests, as well as significantly more anxiety and anhedonia than control rats. The results of multivariate statistical analysis show that the dominant-submissive behavior correlates with depressive, anxiety and social behavior and can be predicted with an accuracy of 86.2%. The increased submissive behavior in male rats that had been subjected to severe postnatal stress suggests that exposure to stress during infancy and childhood could have long-term effects on social relationships. The mechanism of the long-term effects on depression, anxiety and submissive behavior requires further investigation.

KEYWORDS:

anxiety; maternal deprivation; social dominance; stress; submissive behavior

PMID:
31254880
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbr.2019.112025

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