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Life Sci Alliance. 2019 Jun 28;2(4). pii: e201800281. doi: 10.26508/lsa.201800281. Print 2019 Aug.

Dietary restriction induces posttranscriptional regulation of longevity genes.

Author information

1
Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salisbury Cove, ME, USA jrollins@mdibl.org.
2
Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salisbury Cove, ME, USA.
3
Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA, USA.
4
Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salisbury Cove, ME, USA arogers@mdibl.org.

Abstract

Dietary restriction (DR) increases life span through adaptive changes in gene expression. To understand more about these changes, we analyzed the transcriptome and translatome of Caenorhabditis elegans subjected to DR. Transcription of muscle regulatory and structural genes increased, whereas increased expression of amino acid metabolism and neuropeptide signaling genes was controlled at the level of translation. Evaluation of posttranscriptional regulation identified putative roles for RNA-binding proteins, RNA editing, miRNA, alternative splicing, and nonsense-mediated decay in response to nutrient limitation. Using RNA interference, we discovered several differentially expressed genes that regulate life span. We also found a compensatory role for translational regulation, which offsets dampened expression of a large subset of transcriptionally down-regulated genes. Furthermore, 3' UTR editing and intron retention increase under DR and correlate with diminished translation, whereas trans-spliced genes are refractory to reduced translation efficiency compared with messages with the native 5' UTR. Finally, we find that smg-6 and smg-7, which are genes governing selection and turnover of nonsense-mediated decay targets, are required for increased life span under DR.

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