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J Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 27. pii: jiz321. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiz321. [Epub ahead of print]

Live attenuated influenza vaccine induces tonsillar follicular T helper cell responses that correlate with antibody induction.

Author information

1
Influenza Center, University of Bergen.
2
K.G. Jebsen Center for influenza vaccines, University of Bergen.
3
Broegelmann Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen.
4
Department of Research and Development, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Abstract

Influenza remains a major threat to public health. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) have been shown to be effective, particularly in children. Follicular T helper (TFH) cells provide B-cell help and are crucial for generating long-term humoral immunity. However the role of TFH-cells in LAIV induced immune responses is unknown. Here we report that LAIV induced early (3-7 days post-vaccination) activation of tonsillar follicles and influenza-specific TFH-cell (CXCR5+CD57+CD4+ T-cell) responses in children, and to a lesser extent in adults. Serological analyses showed that LAIV elicited rapid (day 14) and long-term (up to 1 year post-vaccination) antibody responses (HI, influenza-specific IgG) in children, but not adults. There was an inverse correlation between pre-existing influenza-specific salivary IgA concentrations and tonsillar TFH-cell responses, and a positive correlation between tonsillar TFH-cell and systemic IgG induction after LAIV. Together, our data demonstrate an important role of tonsillar TFH-cells in LAIV-induced immunity in humans.

KEYWORDS:

Influenza; LAIV; TFH-cells; antibody responses; children; tonsils

PMID:
31250024
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiz321

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