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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2019 May-Jun;30(3):670-677. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.261343.

Management of phosphate abnormalities in hemodialysis patients: Findings from Malaysia.

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Department of Specialist Pharmacy, Jerantut Hospital, Pahang, Malaysia.


Studies have shown that the mean or median phosphate levels were related to certain factors although applying this finding into the clinical setting is challenging. In this study, we attempted to determine treatment characteristics for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) having hyperphosphatemia or hypophosphatemia in comparison with those with normal phosphate level. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted at HD units of Central Pahang Cluster Hospitals, Malaysia, in April 2017 involving 110 ESRD patients on MHD. About 40% of the study patients had normo-or hyperphosphatemia. As many as 84.5% (n = 93) of our patients were prescribed calcium carbonate (CC); the phosphate level was not affected by phosphate binder (PB) adherence. None of our patients received more than one type of PBs. Although there were no significant differences in any factors between normo- and hyperphosphatemic patients, 64% (n = 28) of the hyperphosphatemic patients did not receive the recommended maximum PB dose. In addition, 42% (n = 30) of patients with normo- and hyperphosphatemia prescribed CC received more than the recommended daily elemental calcium. On the other hand, our hypophosphatemic patients tended to be significantly older and had lower HD duration compared to normophosphatemic patients. No other significant differences were found in medication factors between normo- and hypophos-phatemic patients. There is potential to maximize phosphate control in hyperphosphatemic patients in Malaysia by maximizing PB therapy. On the other hand, proactive supervision is required in caring and prescribing for hypophosphatemic patients, especially the older patients.

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