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J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2019 Apr-Jun;37(2):172-176. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.261344.

Effectiveness of "Audio-tactile Performance Technique" to improve the oral hygiene status of visually impaired schoolchildren.

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Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sharad Pawar Dental College, DMIMS (Deemed to be University), Wardha, Maharashtra, India.



Maintaining oral hygiene is a challenging task for the visually impaired population. Oral health is often overlooked because of lack of knowledge about oral health practices. Therefore, there was a need to train visually impaired individuals with the aid of customized techniques so that the understanding of brushing technique could be perceived at its best.

Aims and Objective:

Comparative evaluation to check the effectiveness of "Audio-tactile Performance Technique (ATP)" to improve oral hygiene status of visually impaired schoolchildren.

Subjects and Methods:

The present study was an interventional study of 92 visually impaired children in Wardha district. Their knowledge regarding oral hygiene practices was tested with a verbal questionnaire in a pre- and post-test to check the improvement in their knowledge after imparting health education. Fones method of toothbrushing was taught by "ATP," and a health talk was delivered. The plaque scores were recorded using the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (modified by Turesky et al.) at baseline and at the end of 3 months. Periodic reinforcement was provided twice at an interval of 20 days in between the visits.

Statistical Analysis Used:

The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using Student's paired t-test in Stata version 15.1, and kappa statistics were done to test inter-rater reliability and agreement was found to be 90%.


There was a statistically significant decrease in the postinterventional plaque scores from 2.78 to 1.63 (P < 0.05) and an increase in the posthealth education test scores from 1.98 to 8.21 (P < 0.05). A substantial decrease in the percentage of children, who had high plaque scores initially, was seen postintervention.


The "ATP" along with oral health education served as a very effective customized method of teaching oral hygiene practices and its maintenance to the visually impaired children.


Fones method; health education; oral hygiene; plaque; visual impairment

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