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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2019 Nov;25(11):2211-2216. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.06.017. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Fludarabine and Total-Body Irradiation Conditioning before Ablative Haploidentical Transplantation: Long-Term Safety and Efficacy.

Author information

1
The Blood and Marrow Transplant Program at Northside Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address: ssolomon@bmtga.com.
2
The Blood and Marrow Transplant Program at Northside Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia.
3
School of Public Health, University of Texas, Houston, Texas.

Abstract

Although myeloablative conditioning (MAC) before haploidentical donor transplant (HIDT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide is being increasingly used, the optimal preparative regimen remains unclear. In our initial trial, the feasibility of HIDT following a MAC preparative regimen using fludarabine and 12 Gy of total-body irradiation was demonstrated in 30 patients. We now present long-term outcome results, including an additional 52 patients, now with 47 months (16 to 96) median follow-up. Median patient age was 42 (19 to 61) years. The most common diagnoses were acute myelogenous leukemia (51%) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (33%), and 39% had a high/very high disease risk index (DRI). Engraftment was universal with no cases of primary or secondary graft failure. Grade 3 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and moderate to severe chronic GVHD occurred in 17% and 23%, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 7% at 1 year and 13% at 4 years. Estimated 4-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) were 67%, 60%, and 27%, respectively. CIR was significantly higher in patients with high/very high- versus low/intermediate-risk DRI (38% versus 20%, P= .032), which led to inferior 4-year OS (50% versus 77%, P = .001). Median time to systemic immunosuppressive therapy (IST) discontinuation was 7.8 months, with 84% of patients off IST at 2 years post-transplant. Current GHVD-free, relapse-free survival (CGRFS) at 2, 3, and 4 years was 60%, 57%, and 60%, respectively. This approach to MAC HIDT results in universal engraftment; low rates of NRM, infection, and clinically significant GVHD; and relatively rapid IST discontinuation, resulting in high rates of CGRFS and survival.

KEYWORDS:

CGRFS; GRFS; Haploidentical; Irradiation; Myeloablative; Post-transplant cyclophosphamide; Total body

PMID:
31247313
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.06.017

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