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Front Immunol. 2019 Jun 6;10:1307. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01307. eCollection 2019.

Vitamin D Controls Tumor Growth and CD8+ T Cell Infiltration in Breast Cancer.

Author information

1
Immunity and Cancer Team, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Equipe Labellisée Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Inserm, CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France.
2
Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Plateforme d'essai préclinique TrGET, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Inserm, CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Abstract

Women with low levels of vitamin D have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Numerous studies associated the presence of a CD8+ T cell infiltration with a good prognosis. As vitamin D may play a key role in the modulation of the immune system, the objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of vitamin D on the breast cancer progression and mammary tumor microenvironment. We show that vitamin D decreases breast cancer tumor growth. Immunomonitoring of the different immune subsets in dissociated tumors revealed an increase in tumor infiltrating CD8+ T cells in the vitamin D-treated group. Interestingly, these CD8+ T cells exhibited a more active T cell (TEM/CM) phenotype. However, in high-fat diet conditions, we observed an opposite effect of vitamin D on breast cancer tumor growth, associated with a reduction of CD8+ T cell infiltration. Our data show that vitamin D is able to modulate breast cancer tumor growth and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment in vivo. Unexpectedly, this effect is reversed in high-fat diet conditions, revealing the importance of diet on tumor growth. We believe that supplementation with vitamin D can in certain conditions represent a new adjuvant in the treatment of breast cancers.

KEYWORDS:

CD8+ T cells; breast cancer; immunonutrition; inflammation; vitamin D

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