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Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2019 Jun 26. doi: 10.1007/82_2019_165. [Epub ahead of print]

Diversity and Evolution of Type III Secreted Effectors: A Case Study of Three Families.

Author information

1
Department of Cell & Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
2
Department of Cell & Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. darrell.desveaux@utoronto.ca.
3
Department of Cell & Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. david.guttman@utoronto.ca.

Abstract

A broad range of Gram-negative bacteria employ a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence proteins termed type III secreted effectors directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells. While effectors can contribute to the colonization of eukaryotic hosts by bacterial symbionts and pathogens, they can also elicit host immune responses that restrict bacterial growth. These opposing selective pressures have shaped the evolution of effector families and may be responsible for their incredible diversity in biochemical function, mechanism of action, and taxonomic distribution. In this chapter, we focus on three distinct effector families whose members are distributed among both plant and animal pathogens. We first discuss the LRR-NEL and YopJ families of effectors. These two effector families possess ubiquitin ligase and acetyltransferase activity, respectively, which in both cases can be directed against host innate immune signal transduction pathways to promote infection. Finally, we discuss the TALE family of transcription activator-like effectors that serve to reprogram host immunity transcriptional responses. This chapter aims to highlight the diversity within these three effector families that results from the strong and dynamic evolutionary forces shaping the interface between host and bacterium.

PMID:
31240408
DOI:
10.1007/82_2019_165

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