Send to

Choose Destination
Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Jul;67(7):1137-1142. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1819_18.

Nasal endoscopic features and outcomes of nasal endoscopy guided bicanalicular intubation for complex persistent congenital nasolacrimal duct obstructions.

Author information

Advanced Eye Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.



To study the clinical presentation, nasal endoscopic features, and outcomes of nasal endoscopy guided (NEG) bicanalicular intubation (BCI) in children with complex persistent congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (pCNLDO).


A prospective, interventional study including eligible children (age ≤ 12 years) having complex pCNLDO. The demographics, number of previous probings, nasal endoscopy findings, and outcomes; were noted in all children who underwent NEG-BCI with Crawford's stents. Matting of eyelashes (MoE, upper, and lower eyelid), tear-film height (TFH), and fluorescein dye disappearance test (FDDT) was assessed pre and postoperatively. The minimum stent in-situ period was 12 weeks, and the minimum follow-up was 6 months (after stent removal).


Total 32 children (36 eyes) including 18 females (56.25%) were studied. At a mean age of 4.9 years, all children had epiphora and discharge with MoE (both upper and lower), raised TFH and positive FDDT. Previously, all children underwent conventional probing (s)- once in 12 (33.3%), twice in 18 (50%) and thrice in 6 (16.7%) eyes. The general ophthalmologists performed the majority (n = 21, 58.33%) of those. The BCI was performed under GA in all eyes, and at a mean follow-up of 8.5 months, the "complete" success was noted in 29 eyes (80.5%), 'partial' success in 4 (11.1%) and failure in 3 (8.3%). The stent prolapse was seen in three.


NEG-BCI may provide a satisfactory resolution to complex pCNLDO after single or multiple failed probings. NEG provides confident and efficient management of coexistent intranasal complexities related to the inferior turbinate and meatus.


Bicanalicular intubation; CNLDO; failed probing; lacrimal stents; persistent CNLDO

Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center