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Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Jul;67(7):995-1003. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_807_18.

Computer-assisted navigation in orbitofacial surgery.

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DRR Eye Care and Oculoplasty Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Oculoplasty, Sri Sankaradeva Nethralaya, Guwahati, Assam, India.
Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Ananthan Facial Surgery, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, National University Hospital, Singapore.


The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the most common indications, treatment, and outcomes of computer-assisted surgery (CAS) in ophthalmological practice. CAS has evolved over the years from a neurosurgical tool to maxillofacial as well as an instrument to orbitofacial surgeries. A detailed and organized scrutiny in relevant electronic databases, journals, and bibliographies of the cited articles was carried out. Clinical studies with a minimum of two study cases were included. Navigation surgery, posttraumatic orbital reconstruction, computer-assisted orbital surgery, image-guided orbital decompression, and optic canal decompression (OCD) were the areas of interest. The search generated 42 articles describing the use of navigation in facial surgery: 22 on orbital reconstructions, 5 related to lacrimal sac surgery, 4 on orbital decompression, 2 articles each on intraorbital foreign body and intraorbital tumors, 2 on faciomaxillary surgeries, 3 on cranial surgery, and 2 articles on navigation-guided OCD in traumatic optic neuropathy. In general, CAS is reported to be a useful tool for surgical planning, execution, evaluation, and research. The largest numbers of studies and patients were related to trauma. Treatment of complex orbital fractures was greatly improved by the use of CAS compared with empirically treated control groups. CAS seems to add a favourable potential to the surgical armamentarium. Planning details of the surgical approach in a three-dimensional virtual environment and execution with real-time guidance can help in considerable enhancement of precision. Financial investments and steep learning curve are the main hindrances to its popularity.


Computer-assisted orbital surgery; image-guided orbital surgery; navigation surgery; navigation-guided optic canal decompression; navigation-guided orbital decompression; posttraumatic orbital reconstruction

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