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Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Jul;67(7):988-994. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1131_18.

Robotics and ophthalmology: Are we there yet?

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Department of Ophthalmology, SuVi Eye Institute and Lasik Laser Center, Kota, Rajasthan, India.


Ophthalmology is a field that is now seeing the integration of robotics in its surgical procedures and interventions. Assistance facilitated by robots offers substantial improvements in terms of movement control, tremor cancellation, enhanced visualization, and distance sensing. Robotic technology has only recently been integrated into ophthalmology; hence, the progression is only in its initial stages. Robotic technologies such as da Vinci Surgical System are integrated into the field of ophthalmology and are assisting surgeons in complex eye surgeries. Ophthalmic surgeries require high accuracy and precision to execute tissue manipulation, and some complex ocular surgery may take few hours to complete the procedures that may predispose high-volume ophthalmic surgeons to work-related musculoskeletal disorders. A complete paradigm shift has been achieved in this particular field through the integration of advanced robotic technology, resulting in easier and more efficient procedures. Where robotic technology assists the surgeons and improves the overall quality of care, it also projects several challenges including limited availability, training, and the high cost of the robotic system. Although considerable studies and trials have been conducted for various robotic systems, only a few of them have made it to the commercial stage and ophthalmology, on its own, has a long way to go in robotics technology.


ZEUS Robotic Surgical System (ZRSS); da Vinci robotic system; femtosecond laser cataract devices; intraocular robotic interventional surgical system; multi-arm hybrid robotic system; robot assisted vitreoretinal surgery; robotics in ophthalmology; telerobotic technology

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