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Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2019 Jun 22;52:72-78. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2019.05.018. [Epub ahead of print]

Aptamer-based and aptazyme-based riboswitches in mammalian cells.

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Nucleic Acid Chemistry and Engineering Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904 0495, Japan. Electronic address:


Molecular recognition by RNA aptamers has been exploited to control gene expression in response to small molecules in mammalian cells. These mammalian synthetic riboswitches offer attractive features such as small genetic size and lower risk of immunological complications compared to protein-based transcriptional gene switches. The diversity of gene regulatory mechanisms that involve RNA has also inspired the development of mammalian riboswitches that harness various regulatory mechanisms. In this report, recent advances in synthetic riboswitches that function in mammalian cells are reviewed focusing on the regulatory mechanisms they exploit such as mRNA degradation, microRNA processing, and programmed ribosomal frameshifting.

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