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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Aug;154:27-34. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2019.06.010. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Longitudinal evaluation of gastric emptying in type 2 diabetes.

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Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Australia; Endocrine Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia.
Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Australia.
Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Australia; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia. Electronic address:



To evaluate the natural history of gastric emptying in type 2 diabetes.


12 patients with type 2 diabetes (7 female; age 65.6 ± 1.2 years; duration of known diabetes 22.9 ± 1.5 years) were invited to return for repeat measurements of gastric emptying using the same dual-labelled solid and liquid meal, a mean of 14.0 ± 0.5 years after their initial study. Blood glucose levels, glycated haemoglobin, upper gastrointestinal symptoms and autonomic nerve function at baseline and follow up were also compared.


Gastric emptying of solids was more rapid at follow up than at baseline (period effect P < 0.05), while emptying of liquids was comparable at baseline and follow up (period effect P = 0.2). Gastric emptying of the solid component was abnormally slow (based on T100min) in 6 subjects at baseline and 1 subject at follow up. Liquid emptying was abnormally slow in 6 subjects at baseline, and 5 subjects at follow up. Two patients were insulin treated at baseline, and 6 at follow up. HbA1c was higher at follow up (P < 0.05); however, fasting blood glucose (P = 0.6), postprandial blood glucose excursions (P = 0.07), autonomic nerve function (P > 0.999), and total upper gastrointestinal symptom score (P = 0.1) did not differ.


In patients with long-term type 2 diabetes, gastric emptying of solids and liquids does not usually become more delayed over time, and abnormally slow gastric emptying of solids may improve.


Gastric emptying; Longitudinal; Scintigraphy; Type 2 diabetes

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