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FASEB J. 2019 Jun 25:fj201802681RR. doi: 10.1096/fj.201802681RR. [Epub ahead of print]

The PPAR-microbiota-metabolic organ trilogy to fine-tune physiology.

Author information

1
Interdisciplinary Graduate School, Institute for Health Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
2
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
3
Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1331, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)-Toxalim, Paris, France.
4
Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

The human gut is colonized by commensal microorganisms, predominately bacteria that have coevolved in symbiosis with their host. The gut microbiota has been extensively studied in recent years, and many important findings on how it can regulate host metabolism have been unraveled. In healthy individuals, feeding timing and type of food can influence not only the composition but also the circadian oscillation of the gut microbiota. Host feeding habits thus influence the type of microbial-derived metabolites produced and their concentrations throughout the day. These microbial-derived metabolites influence many aspects of host physiology, including energy metabolism and circadian rhythm. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate various metabolic processes such as fatty acid metabolism. Similar to the gut microbiota, PPAR expression in various organs oscillates diurnally, and studies have shown that the gut microbiota can influence PPAR activities in various metabolic organs. For example, short-chain fatty acids, the most abundant type of metabolites produced by anaerobic fermentation of dietary fibers by the gut microbiota, are PPAR agonists. In this review, we highlight how the gut microbiota can regulate PPARs in key metabolic organs, namely, in the intestines, liver, and muscle. Knowing that the gut microbiota impacts metabolism and is altered in individuals with metabolic diseases might allow treatment of these patients using noninvasive procedures such as gut microbiota manipulation.-Oh, H. Y. P., Visvalingam, V., Wahli, W. The PPAR-microbiota-metabolic organ trilogy to fine-tune physiology.

KEYWORDS:

circadian rhythm; intestines; liver; muscle

PMID:
31237779
DOI:
10.1096/fj.201802681RR

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