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Calcif Tissue Int. 2019 Jun 24. doi: 10.1007/s00223-019-00576-3. [Epub ahead of print]

Role of Nrf2 in Fracture Healing: Clinical Aspects of Oxidative Stress.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074, Aachen, Germany. ykubo@ukaachen.de.
2
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
3
Department of Orthopaedics, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
4
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of the Lower Limb and Arthroplasty, Hospital Rummelsberg, Rummelsberg 71, 90592, Schwarzenbruck, Germany.
5
Department of Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.
6
Department of Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
7
Department of Dental Materials and Biomaterials Research, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
8
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center+, 6229 HX Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Fracture healing is a natural process that recapitulates embryonic skeletal development. In the early phase after fracture, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced under inflammatory and ischemic conditions due to vessel injury and soft tissue damage, leading to cell death. Usually, such damage during the course of fracture healing can be largely prevented by protective mechanisms and functions of antioxidant enzymes. However, intrinsic oxidative stress can cause excessive toxic radicals, resulting in irreversible damage to cells associated with bone repair during the fracture healing process. Clinically, patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, habitual drinkers, or heavy smokers are at risk of impaired fracture healing due to elevated oxidative stress. Although increased levels of oxidative stress markers upon fracture and effects of antioxidants on fracture healing have been reported, a detailed understanding of what causes impaired fracture healing under intrinsic conditions of oxidative stress is lacking. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been identified as a key transcriptional regulator of the expression of antioxidants and detoxifying enzymes. It further not only plays a crucial role in preventing degenerative diseases in multiple organs, but also during fracture healing. This narrative review evaluates the influence of intrinsic oxidative stress on fracture healing and sheds new light on the intriguing role of Nrf2 during bone regeneration in pathological fractures.

KEYWORDS:

Fracture healing; Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species

PMID:
31236620
DOI:
10.1007/s00223-019-00576-3

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