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J Infect Chemother. 2019 Oct;25(10):758-763. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2019.03.004. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Nationwide survey of indications for oral antimicrobial prescription for pediatric patients from 2013 to 2016 in Japan.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, 2-8-29 Musashidai, Fuchu City, Tokyo, 183-8561, Japan; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Subspecialties, National Center for Child Health and Development, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan.
2
Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Social Medicine, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan.
3
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Subspecialties, National Center for Child Health and Development, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan; Disease Control and Prevention Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8655, Japan.
4
Department of Social Medicine, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan.
5
Department of Infectious Disease Medicine, Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Children's Hospital, 1-6-7 Minatojima-minami-town, Tyuo-ku, Kobe-city, Hyogo, 650-0047, Japan.
6
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, 2-8-29 Musashidai, Fuchu City, Tokyo, 183-8561, Japan; Division of Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, 2-8-29 Musashidai, Fuchu City, Tokyo, 183-8561, Japan.
7
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Subspecialties, National Center for Child Health and Development, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan; Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA. Electronic address: miyairi-i@ncchd.go.jp.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health concern. In 2016, the Japanese government launched a national action plan aimed at achieving a 33% and 50% reduction in the number of total and oral antimicrobial prescriptions (cephalosporins, macrolides, and quinolones) from the 2013 figures by 2020, respectively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the indications for recent antimicrobial prescriptions and to identify the primary targets for intervention to achieve the aims of the government's action plan.

METHODS:

Using the national health claims database, we retrospectively analyzed oral antibiotic prescriptions for Japanese children aged ≦ 15 years from 2013 to 2016. The trends were analyzed based on days of therapy (DOT) per infectious disease-related visit for each antibiotic. For patients whose chief diagnosis was an infectious disease, the number of antimicrobial prescriptions per diagnosis, their proportion, and the details of the type of antimicrobial were investigated.

RESULTS:

In total, 297,197,328 infectious disease-related visits were identified during 2013-2016. Total antimicrobial prescriptions showed a 3.7% reduction from 1.519 DOT/visitor in 2013 to 1.463 DOT/visitor in 2016 (Ptrend < 0.001). Antimicrobials were prescribed for 31.7% and 36.9% of children with upper and lower respiratory tract infection, accounting for 54.6% and 26.2% of all antimicrobial prescriptions, respectively. Third generation cephalosporins and macrolides comprised the majority of these prescriptions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Antimicrobials were commonly prescribed for children with respiratory infections. Therefore, promoting appropriate antimicrobial use in this population is required to achieve the 2020 goals set by the action plan.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiotics; Appropriate use; National database; Pediatric

PMID:
31235350
DOI:
10.1016/j.jiac.2019.03.004

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