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BMB Rep. 2019 Aug;52(8):475-481.

Evolution of CRISPR towards accurate and efficient mammal genome engineering.

Author information

1
Molecular Recognition Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Korea.
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 02841, Korea.
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Department of Physiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Abstract

The evolution of genome editing technology based on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system has led to a paradigm shift in biological research. CRISPR/Cas9-guide RNA complexes enable rapid and efficient genome editing in mammalian cells. This system induces double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at target sites and most DNA breakages induce mutations as small insertions or deletions (indels) by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway. However, for more precise correction as knock-in or replacement of DNA base pairs, using the homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway is essential. Until now, many trials have greatly enhanced knock-in or substitution efficiency by increasing HDR efficiency, or newly developed methods such as Base Editors (BEs). However, accuracy remains unsatisfactory. In this review, we summarize studies to overcome the limitations of HDR using the CRISPR system and discuss future direction. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(8): 475-481].

PMID:
31234957
PMCID:
PMC6726207

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