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J Biol Chem. 1988 Feb 5;263(4):1960-9.

Interaction of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 on the surface of endothelial cells.

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Division of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi-Ken, Japan.


The site of the reaction between plasminogen activators and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) was investigated in cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conditioned medium from endothelial cells, two forms of a plasminogen activator-specific inhibitor can be demonstrated: an active form that readily binds to and inhibits plasminogen activators and an immunologically related quiescent form which has no anti-activator activity but which can be activated by denaturation. In conditioned medium, only a few percent of PAI-1 is the active form. However, the addition of increasing concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) or urokinase to confluent endothelial cells produced a saturable (3.0 pmol/5 x 10(5) cells), dose-dependent increase of the activator-PAI-1 complex in the conditioned medium even in the presence of actinomycin D or cycloheximide. This resulted also in a dose-dependent decrease of the residual PAI activity measured by reverse fibrin autography both in the conditioned medium and cell extracts. Short-time exposure of endothelial cells to a large amount of t-PA caused almost complete depletion of all cell-associated PAI activity. Although there was no detectable PAI activity even after activation of PAI by denaturants or antigen in the culture medium at 4 degrees C without the addition of t-PA, the addition of t-PA at 4 degrees C not only resulted in the formation of 70% of the amount of the t-PA.PAI complex in conditioned medium at 37 degrees C, but also induced PAI-1 antigen in a time and dose-dependent manner in the conditioned medium. Moreover, 125I-labeled t-PA immobilized on Sepharose added directly to endothelial cells formed a complex with PAI-1 in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, no detectable complex was formed with PAI-1 when Sepharose-immobilized 125I-labeled t-PA was added to endothelial cells under conditions in which the added t-PA could not contact the cells directly but other proteins could pass freely by the use of a Transwell. All these results suggest that a "storage pool" on the surface of endothelial cells or the extracellular matrix produced by endothelial cells contains almost all the active PAI-1, and reaction between PA and PAI-1 mainly occurs on the endothelial cell membranes, resulting in a decrease of the conversion of active PAI-1 to the quiescent form.

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