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BMC Public Health. 2019 Jun 24;19(1):808. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6929-4.

Sleep quality in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers: findings from the general population in central China.

Liao Y1,2,3,4, Xie L5, Chen X6,7,8, Kelly BC9, Qi C3, Pan C10, Yang M11, Hao W3, Liu T3, Tang J12,13,14,15.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
3
Department of Psychiatry, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.
4
National Clinical Research Center on Mental Disorders, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.
5
Changsha Social Work College, 22 Xiangzhang Rd, Changsha, 410116, Hunan, China.
6
Department of Psychiatry, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China. chenxiaogang@csu.edu.cn.
7
National Clinical Research Center on Mental Disorders, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China. chenxiaogang@csu.edu.cn.
8
Hunan Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China. chenxiaogang@csu.edu.cn.
9
Department of Sociology & Center for Research on Young People's Health (CRYPH), Purdue University, 700 W State Street, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA. bckelly@purdue.edu.
10
Clinical Psychology Department, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410013, People's Republic of China.
11
Shenzhen Mental Health Center, Shenzhen Kangning Hospital, Shenzhen, 518020, People's Republic of China.
12
Department of Psychiatry, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. tangjinsonghn@163.com.
13
Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. tangjinsonghn@163.com.
14
Department of Psychiatry, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China. tangjinsonghn@163.com.
15
National Clinical Research Center on Mental Disorders, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China. tangjinsonghn@163.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sleep problems are common in the general population. Cigarette smoking is common in the general population of China. Examinations of the prevalence of poor sleep quality among Chinese smokers and nonsmokers are still lacking. This study was designed to examine sleep quality and sleep disturbances among cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in the general population in central China.

METHODS:

In this population-based sampling project, we used a multi-stage sampling method to recruit survey participants from September 2012 to October 2012 in rural and urban areas of Hunan province, China. A total of 27,300 subjects were sampled from the general population and 26,282 completed the self-report of cigarette smoking characteristics. Cigarette smoker was defined as having smoked ≥100 cigarette in a lifetime and smoked during the last 28 days. Cigarette smoking characteristics were obtained from smokers, including cigarettes per day, years of smoking, quit attempts, and smoking cravings. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was applied to assess quality of sleep and sleep disturbances (PSQI score > 5).

RESULTS:

Significantly more smokers than nonsmokers demonstrated poor sleep quality and sleep disturbances. Among smokers, linear regression analyses showed that poor sleep was inversely associated with cigarettes per day, and positively associated with years of smoking, quit attempts, and smoking craving. Logistic regression analysis showed that quit attempts and smoking cravings were associated with higher odds of sleep disturbances.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sleep disturbances were more prevalent among cigarette smokers than nonsmokers. Smokers also varied in sleep problems on the basis of the characteristics of their smoking. Smokers should be informed about the link between cigarette smoking and poor sleep quality, and should be advised that one of several important health benefits from smoking cessation could be the improvement of sleep quality. Sleep therapy should be recommended as an adjunctive treatment for smoking cessation.

KEYWORDS:

Cigarette smoking; Sleep disturbances; Sleep quality

PMID:
31234809
PMCID:
PMC6591832
DOI:
10.1186/s12889-019-6929-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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