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Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jun 21;20(12). pii: E3038. doi: 10.3390/ijms20123038.

IQSEC2-Associated Intellectual Disability and Autism.

Author information

1
Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 1 Efron St., Haifa, 3525422, Israel. ninal@technion.ac.il.
2
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. gumanah1@jhmi.edu.
3
Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 1 Efron St., Haifa, 3525422, Israel. eli.rogers@rochester.edu.
4
Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 1 Efron St., Haifa, 3525422, Israel. reemjada@campus.technion.ac.il.
5
Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 1 Efron St., Haifa, 3525422, Israel. eorit@technion.ac.il.
6
Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 1 Efron St., Haifa, 3525422, Israel. alevy@technion.ac.il.

Abstract

Mutations in IQSEC2 cause intellectual disability (ID), which is often accompanied by seizures and autism. A number of studies have shown that IQSEC2 is an abundant protein in excitatory synapses and plays an important role in neuronal development as well as synaptic plasticity. Here, we review neuronal IQSEC2 signaling with emphasis on those aspects likely to be involved in autism. IQSEC2 is normally bound to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors via post synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95). Activation of NMDA receptors results in calcium ion influx and binding to calmodulin present on the IQSEC2 IQ domain. Calcium/calmodulin induces a conformational change in IQSEC2 leading to activation of the SEC7 catalytic domain. GTP is exchanged for GDP on ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6). Activated ARF6 promotes downregulation of surface α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors through a c-jun N terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated pathway. NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors, and PSD-95 are all known to be adversely affected in autism. An IQSEC2 transgenic mouse carrying a constitutively active mutation (A350V) shows autistic features and reduced levels of surface AMPA receptor subunit GluA2. Sec7 activity and AMPA receptor recycling are presented as two targets, which may respond to drug treatment in IQSEC2-associated ID and autism.

KEYWORDS:

AMPA receptors; NMDA receptors; autism; guanine nucleotide exchange factor; intellectual disability; synaptic plasticity

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