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Environ Pollut. 2019 Aug;251:930-937. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.099. Epub 2019 May 8.

Glycine transformation induces repartition of cadmium and lead in soil constituents.

Author information

1
College of Natural Resources and Environment, Joint Institute for Environmental Research and Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, PR China.
2
College of Natural Resources and Environment, Joint Institute for Environmental Research and Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, PR China; College of Resources and Environment, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650000, PR China.
3
College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, PR China.
4
College of Natural Resources and Environment, Joint Institute for Environmental Research and Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, PR China. Electronic address: yongtao@scau.edu.cn.

Abstract

Heavy metal stress in soil accelerates the plant root exudation of organic ligands. The degradation of exudate ligands can be fundamental to controlling the complexation of heavy metals. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between the transformation of glycine, a representative amino acid exudate, and cadmium/lead mobility in soils. Two 48-h incubation experiments were conducted after glycine addition to the soils. Parameters related to glycine distribution and degradation, Cd/Pb mobility, and the formation of glycine-Cd complex were analyzed. Glycine addition gradually decreased the Cd and Pb mobility throughout the 48-h incubation. By the end of the experiment, the CaCl2-extracted Cd and Pb concentrations decreased by 63.5% and 43.6%, respectively. The glycine mineralization was strong in the first 6 h, as indicated by a sharp decrease in CO2 efflux rates from 10.04 ± 0.62 to 3.51 ± 0.07 mg C-CO2 kg-1 soil h-1. The mineralization rates notably decreased after 6 h. The comparisons of dissolved organic carbon and hydrolyzable amino acid contents indicated that glycine mineralization in solution (95.6%) was much stronger than that in soil solids (49.3%). At the end of incubation, 0.22 mmol kg-1 glycine remained in soil solids. The remaining glycine provided sufficient sorption sites for Cd2+ and Pb2+, resulting in enhanced metal fixation via complexation. Comparisons of zeta potentials supported the formation of the glycine-Cd complex. The Cd and Pb immobilization processes could be attributed to metal-glycine complex formation, sorption re-equilibrium, and glycine degradation. These findings emphasize that the biogeochemical processes of glycine, derived from root exudates or protein degradation products, increased the sorption of heavy metals to soils and thus reduced their toxicity to plants.

KEYWORDS:

Cadmium mobility; Detoxification; Glycine transformation; Lead mobility; Root exudates

PMID:
31234259
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.099
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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